Condyloma, Genital Warts
Condyloma acuminata is a disease caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, which causes warts on the skin and mucous membranes around the genitals. It can get larger without treatment, forming a cauliflower-like shape with a rough surface. It can infect other parts of the body as well, such as the anus, rectal mucosa, and mouth. The warts themselves are rarely painful and even with treatment, the recurrence rate is high and may require long-term treatment.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) itself is a very common virus that infects many. There are nearly 200 types, and the pathogenicity and types of disease differ depending on the type. Most of HPV do not progress to any disease when infected, but some causes warts and cancer.
There are HPV types that can easily cause cancer once infected, they are high-risk HPV (mainly types 16 and 18). This types leads to cervical cancer, anal cancer, cancer in the mouth and others. The commonly know Condyloma is among the low-risk HPV type (mainly types 6 and 11).
Route of infection and prevention
Human papillomavirus is transmitted mainly through direct contract to a small wound formed on the mucous membrane during sexual intercourse. If you have been infected, anyone who you had sexual intercourse with can be infected. If a pregnant woman contracts Condyloma acuminata, she can infect her newborn as well during the delivery.
Although condoms are generally recommended for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, human papillomavirus is present in a wide range of areas such as the female vulva, male penis, scrotum, and perianal area in both sexes. A condom alone cannot 100% prevent the infection.
There are vaccines available to prevent human papillomavirus. In addition to high-risk types (16-type, 18-type and others), some of them can also prevent low-risk types 6 and 11 and are useful for the prevention of apoplexy condyloma. It is recommended to get vaccinated before having the initial sexual intercourse. However, since there are many types of human papillomavirus, and vaccines can prevent multiple types, it is considered to be effective even after having sexual intercourse. This is lso to prevent transmission to others who have not been infected before.
Infection is usually easily distinguished by observation of the warts, but when in doubt, a test to collect the wart cells and detect the virus is necessary.
Multiple types of human papillomavirus that can lead to cancer may be found when you have Condyloma acuminata. If cancer is suspected, pathological examination of the wart tissue under a microscope may be performed, and PCR may be added to check for high-risk HPV types.
Treatment will be mainly removing the warts. Other treatment include, ointements, ablation with a laser or electric scalpel, cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen, and surgery are used.
Relapses are relatively common and they require long-term treatment and follow-up.